A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


This moulding includes two different types, a T-Astragal and a Flat Astragal. The "T" is attached to one of a pair of doors to keep one door from swinging through the opening. The flat astragal, which in classic Greek architecture was a bead around a column below the cap, is used for decorative purposes.

Awning Sash
A frame in which the panes of a window are set. The frame is built in such a way that the bottom swings outward in window frame.

Awning Window Unit
A combination of a frame, one or more awning sashes, weather-strip and an operating device assembled as a complete and properly operating unit; screens and/or storm sash are optional; the unit may contain one or more fixed or non-operative sashes in combination with the operative sash.

back to top


Back Band
A rabbetted moulding used to surround the outside edge of casing.

Backed Out
groove or remove a portion of the wood on the unexposed face of a wood member to better fit over irregular surfaces; also, hollow-backed.

A square or turned spindle that supports a stair rail.

Applied where floor and walls meet, forming a visual foundation. Protects walls from kicks and bumps, furniture and cleaning tools. Base may be referred to as one, two or three member. The base shoe and base cap are used to conceal uneven floor and wall junctions.

Base Cap
A decorative member installed flush against the wall and the top of an S4S baseboard. Also a versatile panel moulding.

Base Shoe
Applied where base moulding meets the floor. Protects base moulding from damage by cleaning tools. Conceals any uneven lines or cracks where base meets the floor.

Basement Sash
A frame in which the panes of glass are set. The awning style sash usually consists of one, two or three vertical lights. It is designed to swing inward from the top or the bottom.

A symmetrical pattern used to conceal the line where two parallel boards or panels meet.

A semicircular or rounded profile worked on wood; also a small molding to secure glass or panels to doors, hence glass bead.

Bottom Rail
A horizontal rail at the bottom of a sash, door, blind or other panel assembly.

A type of external casing which frames windows and doors.

Grouping and tying of like moulding patterns into units. Styles of bundling for door and window frames are classified as:

back to top


Cased Opening
An interior opening without a door but finished with jambs and casing.

Molded or surfaced four-sided wood pieces of various widths and thicknesses, used for trimming door and windows openings. A casing may be classifies as exterior or interior as far as window and exterior door frames are concerned.

An interior opening without a door but finished with jambs and casing.

Chair Rail
An interior moulding usually applied about on third the distance from the floor, paralleling the base moulding and encircling the perimeter of a room. Originally used to prevent chairs from marring walls. Used today is as a decorative element or a divider between different wall covering such as wallpaper and paint or wainscoting.

Champher Strip
A triangular moulding often used in concrete forming work.

Check Rail
In double-hung windows, this is the bottom rail of the upper sash and the upper rail of the lower sash, where the lock is mounted. It is also known as a Meeting Rail.

A generic term referring to any of a variety of window units with one or more curved frame members, often used over another window or door opening.

Carpentry process by which a moulding such as a crown is sawn on the adjourning end to fit over the face profile of the second member. Used where mouldings join at 90-degree angles on a wall or ceiling installation.

Corner Guard
Outside corner guard is used to protect corners or to cover the ragged edge where wall covering and painted surfaces meet at an outside corner. Inside corner guard covers uneven joints or ragged lines where wallpaper, paneling or other covering materials meet with painted or contrasting surfaced walls at an inside corner.

Exterior trim used at juncture of outside wall and roof. Also describes interior trim used where walls and ceiling meet (crown, cove, bed moulding).

A moulding with a concave profile used at corners, particularly as a ceiling cornice. Small coves may be used as inside corner guard.

Cove and Bead
A molding profile consisting of a cove and a bead; also called cove with a bead; glass bead or stop.

Most often used where walls and ceiling meet. Crown mouldings are used to cover larger angles. Crowns are always "sprung" while beds are either "sprung" or plain. A "sprung" moulding has the interior corner beveled off to better fit a right angle joint.

Cut-Off Line
In the finger-jointing process, the area where defects are cross cut away from shop lumber after it has been ripped.

Cut Stock
Small pieces of surfaced, partially worked or rough lumber in specified sizes suitable for further manufacture into millwork products.

Cutter Head
Fitted with moulding knives, cutter heads are installed in a moulder where they rotate at high speeds to shape the moulding profiles.

back to top


A groove or rectangular section for receiving the end of a board.

Decorative Entry System
An entryway made up of a door in a frame, one or two sidelights, and a transom.

A separation of piles or layers of wood through failure of the adhesive.

The weight of a substance per unit volume; for example, 23 lbs. Per cubic foot.

A millwork assembly of stiles, rails, and panels that swings, slides, tilts up or folds in order to close an opening in a wall or cabinet. A modern door may be used on the exterior of interior, and may be either flush or panel type. Historically, there were two types of doors: ledge and brace (or batten) and paneled doors. An exterior door used before the 17 th century, the ledge and brace style was constructed from vertical panels that were held together with a Z-shaped brace nailed to the back. A Tudor-style door is similar to the ledge and brace except that it is held together by oak planks across the back instead of a Z-brace. In the 1600's, the paneled door came into use as an interior door. The first examples were made with two or four panels, but then near the end of the 18 th century, a six-paneled version was made, called a Georgian door.

Door Casing
Same as casing; may be an interior or exterior door casing; exterior door casings are installed only on the outside of exterior door frames, especially on wood facing wood-frame exterior walls.

Door Frame
A group of wood parts machined and assembled to form an enclosure and support for a door; door frames are classified either as exterior or interior door frames.

Door Jamb
The part of a door frame that surrounds and contacts the edges of the stiles and the top rail of a door. Jambs may be classified as "head"or "side" jambs and as "plain"or "rabbeted."

Door Panel
A sheet of thin lumber, plywood or composition material inserted into the frame formed by the stiles, rails and mullions of a door.

Drip Cap
Applied over the exterior window and door frames, this moulding keeps water from seeping under the siding, also directs away from window glass. Makes an attractive contemporary interior door and window casing.

Drip Groove
A semicircular grove on the underside of the drip cap or the lip of a window sill which prevents water from running back under the drip or sill.

Dovetail Joint
A joint formed by inserting a projecting wedge-shaped member into a correspondingly shaped cutout member.

back to top


Exterior Casing
A casing that trims the exterior of a window or door frame and serves as the boundary molding for the siding material; forms a rabbet with the blind stop or a jamb for the screen.

back to top


Outer or exposed surface from which grade is determined.

Face Measure
The measurement across the face of any wood part exclusive of any solid mold or rabbet.

Factory or Shop Lumber
An industrial lumber grade primarily used for millwork. Finger jointed mouldings, windows and doors are manufactured from factory or shop lumber grades.

The placement (or arrangement) and sizing of the windows and exterior doors of a building.

Fiber Board
A broad term used to describe wood sheet material of widely varying densities manufactured of refined or partly refined wood fibers.

A narrow band of wood between two flutes in a wood member; a flat, square moulding separating other mouldings.

Finger Joint
A series of fingers machined on the ends of two pieces to be joined, which mesh together and are held firmly in position by a water-resistant adhesive.

Finger Jointer
Machinery which cuts, glues and joins the fingers in finger jointed lumber or cut-stock for mouldings and millwork.

Flat Door Panel
A door panel consisting of a flat piece of plywood, solid wood or other material in contrast to a raised door panel.

A thin piece of wood, used often as a veneer.

A long, rounded groove machined along the grain of a wood member, eg., a pilaster.

The enclosure in which window sash or door panels are mounted.

A box cornice wood member surfaced four sides nailed to the wall of the structure where the soffit and building wall meet.

back to top


The insertion of glass into sashes and doors. Glazing also refers to the lowest quality of plate glass. The purpose of glazing is to retain the glass adequately under the design load, provide effective weathering sealing, prevent loads or pressure points on the glass resulting from building movement, prevent glass-to-metal contact, and minimize glass breakage from mechanical or thermal stress.

Glazing Stop
The part of the sash or door panel which holds the glass in place.

Wood moulding and jambs are available in two standard grades.

An arrangement and direction of alignment for wood elements or fibers; can be straight or spiral grain; also used loosely to indicate texture.

Grain Printed
A method of pre-finishing mouldings whereby the moulding receives a color coating, is printed with a wood grain and top-coated for durability.

back to top


Half Round
A moulding whose profile is half a circle. May be used as a screen moulding or bead, shelf edge or panel mould.

One of the botanical groups of trees that has broad leaves in contrast to the needle-like leaves of the conifers or softwoods; hardwoods are deciduous (they shed their leaves in the fall or at the end of each growing season).

Half Round
A moulding whose profile is half a circle. May be used as a screen moulding or bead, shelf edge or panel mould.

Hook Strip
A wood moulding nailed along the walls of a closet to support clothes hooks, shelves, and closet poles.

A light or cut-out formed by a horizontal bar extending from stile to stile of a sash or door.

The extension of stile, jamb or sill.

Ability to absorb moisture easily..

back to top


Natural or unpainted wood.

Inner Casing
An entrance member that fits over the outside edges of the side and head jambs, thereby providing a base for the pilasters; an entrance casing nearest to the opening that provides a base for the pilasters.

Inner Frame
On a panel door, the intermediate panel member between the stile and door panel that accentuates the sticking of the door.

Interior Casing
A casing that trims the interior of window and door frames; three pieces of casing are required, namely two of the side casing and one of the head.

Intermediate Rail
A rail of a door located between the top and bottom rails.

back to top



back to top


Longitudinal saw cuts of machined grooves of varying depths (dependent on the thickness of the wood member) made on the unexposed faces of millwork members to relieve stress and prevent warping.

Knee Wall Moulding
Longitudinal saw cuts of machined grooves of varying depths (dependent on the thickness of the wood member) made on the unexposed faces of millwork members to relieve stress and prevent warping.

A portion of a branch or limb that has become incorporated in a piece of lumber. In lumber, knots are classified as to form, size, quality and occurrences. A red knot is one that results from a live branch growth in the tree and is inter-grown with the surrounding wood. A black knot is one that results from a dead branch which the wood growth of the tree had surrounded.

back to top


Originally used in trellis work, this small plain, S4S moulding is among the most versatile of profiles.

Light (also Lite)
A framed opening in a sash or door containing a pane of glass.

Lineal Foot
Having length only; used in designating quantities of mouldings; "linear," "foot," or "running foot;" "lineal" usually designates non-specific or random lengths, 3-20 feet or 6-20 feet.

Lock Block
A solid or glued block of wood the thickness of a hollow-core interior door or steel exterior door stile, which is joined to the inside edge of the stile and to which a lock is fitted.

Lock Rail
The intermediate rail of a door at lock height.

An opening with a series of horizontal slats, called louver boards, arranged sloping downward to permit ventilation but exclude rain, sunlight or vision. Louvers can be made in various shapes.

back to top


Masonry Opening
The space in a masonry wall left open for windows or door.

Abbreviation for "thousand board feet."

Milling in Transit (MIT)
A privilege extended to rail shipments whereby carload shipments of lumber moves from the sawmills into a moulding and millwork plant for remanufacture. The rate is established on the basis from sawmill to final destination and is subject to MIT charges and weight losses due to manufacture.

Millwork (woodwork)
Products primarily manufactures from lumber in a planning mill or woodworking plant. Includes mouldings, door frames and entrances, blinds and shutters, sash and window units, doors, stair-work, kitchen cabinets, mantels, china or corner cabinets and porch work.

Mirror Moulding
A moulding applied to provide a frame for and to secure a mirror.

Miter Box
A tool, often fitted with a back saw, which is used to cut accurate angles for tight fitting miter joints.

Moisture Content
The weight of the water in wood expressed in percentage of the weight of the oven-dry wood.

Worked into a form of shape and referring to a wood member other than those "surfaced four sides."

Moulder (sticker)
A woodworking machine designed to run mouldings and other wood members with regular or irregular profiles.

Moulding Lumber
This usually consists of C and Better, Moulding and Better Grades which are used in the manufacture of clear, solid mouldings and jambs with minimum waste.

Moulding Series
This usually consists of C and Better, Moulding and Better Grades which are used in the manufacture of clear, solid mouldings and jambs with minimum waste.

A wood or metal part used to structurally join two window or door units.

Mullion Casing
The strip which is applied over the window jambs in a multiple opening window. Sometimes called a panel strip, used for decorative wall treatments.

Multi-Point Lock
A casement locking system which secures the window at two or more locking points by operation of one handle.

Applies to any short or light bar, either vertical or horizontal, used to separate glass in a sash into multiple lights. Also called a windowpane divider or a grille.

back to top


A rounded edge.

back to top


Ogee or O.G.
Having and "S" shaped or reverse curve profile; the "ogee" arch was pointed with an "ogee" curve on each side and was prominent in Gothic Architecture; also O.G.

Open Air Space Calculation
To calculate the open air space in a louver door, count the number of spaces between the louvers and rails. Multiply this number time the width of the space times the width of the door minus the total width of both stiles.

For example: 4 1/4" stiles on a 30" by 80" door
30" - 8 1/2" (Total Stile Width: 2 x 4 1/4") = 21 1/2" length of air space
64 louvers
66 air spaces at 1/8" wide
66 x 1/8" x 21 1/2" = 177.375 square inches of air space

A convex profile usually a quarter section of circle and similar to the profile of "quarter-round."

back to top


Term used to describe the two side members of door jambs, frames, or casing trim.

Panel Divider
A moulding which separates two vertical wood panels along their common edges.

Parting Stop
A small strip of wood let into the plough of the jambs of a double hung check-rail window frame to separate the top sash from the bottom sash; also parting bead, parting strip or check strip.

Passage Door
An interior door connecting two inside rooms or used for a closet door; this door type does not have the same strength, insulation or security requirements of an exterior door. Panel construction on passage doors is designed to allow the wood to expand and contract with changes in moisture and temperature; the center panels are allowed to float within the door's frame.

Profile with a reverse "S" shape and a fillet on one or both ends. Sometimes called a reverse OGEE.

Picture Frame Moulding
Rabbeted moulding forming a frame for pictures.

Picture Mould
Used to support hooks for picture hanging. Applied around a room's circumference near the ceiling line.

Picture Window
The same as a stationary or fixed sash, a picture sash or window usually implies a relatively large-sized sash.

A term used to describe cut-to-length mouldings sold by the piece rather than per hundred lineal feet.

A rectangular, circular or semi-circular member used as a simulated column in entrances and other door openings and fireplace mantels; usually contains base, shaft and capital.

An accumulation of resinous material.

Pitch Streak
A well-defined accumulation of pitch in the wood cells in a more or less regular streak. It should not be confused with dark grain.

Plant on Moulding
A moulding applied to a surface which projects or remains above it. An applied moulding.

Plinth Block
A block at the base of a pilaster; a block of wood placed at the bottom of side door casing to terminate the casing as well as the base. Since the door casings and bases are moulded, "plinth blocks" offer a good looking, sturdy member which solves the problem of joining casing and base mouldings with different profiles. "Plinth blocks" are thicker and wider than the abutting members; also base block, foot block or pilaster base.

A rectangular slot of three surfaces cut with the grain of the wood.

A well-defined opening between the rings of annual growth which develops during the growth of the tree. It usually contains pitch or bark.

Millwork with an applied finish coating. May be grain printed, vinyl wrapped, toned or in a solid opaque color.

Prehung Door Unit
A precut and assembled unit consisting of a wood door with the locking or passage hardware that is hung on hinges in a wood frame. The wood frame includes the one or two piece jamb either in adjustable or pre-ordered widths as well as the door stop mouldings and casings.

Any substance that, for a reasonable length of time, will prevent the development and action or wood-destroying fungi, borers of various kinds and other harmful insects that deteriorate wood.

A wood part which has been coated with paint primers either in the factory or on site.

Prime Coat
The first coat of paint in an application that consists of two or more coats; also refers to the paint used for such an initial coat; priming; primer; paint-primed.

Prime Coat Finish
A hardware finish of baked enamel intended for a later application of paint.

back to top


Quarter Round
Versatile quarter round may be used as a base shoe, inside corner moulding or to cover any 90 degree recessed junctures. Often used to cover the line where roof and siding meet on exteriors.

back to top


A rectangular cut where two surfaces are cut on the edge of a member parallel with the grain. On a door jamb the rabbets would form a built-in stop on the face of the jamb.

Raised Moulding
A moulding not on the same level or plane as the wood member or assembly to which it is applied; as contrasted to "flush moulding."

Rake Moulding
A moulding applied to the rake or the exposed inclined ends of a gable roof; term is sometimes applied to any moulding installed in a direction other than horizontal or vertical; also barge moulding.

In a moulding plant, a bandsaw which saws ripped lumber lengthwise into ideal shapes for conversion into mouldings with minimum wood waste.

Continuation in a different direction of a moulding or projection, usually at right angles.

That portion of the moulding and or jamb that is exposed when two members are joined, such as when casing is applied against the jamb.

Lumber that has not been dressed or surfaced but which has been sawed, edged and trimmed at least to the extent of showing saw marks in the wood.

Rough Opening
The opening in a wall where a window is to be installed.

Round Edge
The corners of a piece shaped to a radius; generally implies a greater radius than for an "eased edge"; shaped primarily for appearance.

Refers to the resistance a window has to thermal transfer or heat flow.

back to top


Outer layers of growth between the bark and the heartwood which contain the sap.

A single assembly of stiles and rails in a frame for holding glass, with or without dividing bars or muntins, to fill a given opening; it may be either open or glazed.

Sash Cord
The rope or chain attaching the sash to the counter balance in a double-hung window.

Sash Door
A door that is constructed with the bottom half made up of a wood panel and the top half made of glass to allow for a view.

Sash Lift
A handle built into the bottom rail of the lower sash on a double-hung window.

Sash Weight
The concealed cast-iron weight used to counterbalance the sash in double-hung windows.

A deep concave moulding more than 1/4 round in sections; reverse of torus; cove moulding.

Screen Moulding
A small moulding which covers the seam where screening is fastened to the screen frame.

Screen Stock
A S4S moulding originally used in the construction of screens. Used extensively in cabinet work and finished carpentry where a clear strip is required. Many times referred to as S4S stock.

Mouldings or jambs sold as a unit or two sides and a header, usually for installation around a door opening.

Shelf Cleat
A moulding commonly used in closets to support the shelves, also shelf strip.

Shingle/Panel Mould
A decorative patter, originally used to trim out raised panel wall construction. It is most useful fabricated as a frame, surrounding attractive wall covering for a paneled effect on walls.

An assembly of stiles and rails, with or without a wood panel, containing a single row of glass panels or lights and installed on one or both sides of an exterior door frame, especially a front entrance door frame. Also used in older houses to frame interior doors.

Smooth Sawn
The surface is machined by fine saw work.

Softwoods are one of the botanical groups of trees that have persistent needle-like or scale-like leaves. Most softwoods are evergreens.

Solid Moulding
Non-finger-jointed mouldings; solid length.

The interior corner of a moulding "beveled off" to better fit a right angle joint; in contrast to non-sprung or plain moulding.

A discoloration of the wood. Brown stain is due to a chemical reaction occurring in the drying of some species. Blue stain is cause by the growth of mould like fungi on the surface or in the interior of the wood prior to the time the wood is dry. The stain does not effect the strength of the wood, and the growth of the fungi stops once the wood is dry. Stain, in grading rules is defined as light, medium, and heavy. Light stain is so slight that it does not effect the appearance for natural finishes. Heavy stain is permitted only in paint grades.

Stationary Sash
A fixed or inoperative sash, often used in combination with other types of window and sash units; intended primarily for viewing purposes and for admitting light.

A moulded interior trim member serving as a sash or window frame sill cap.

A semi-elliptical area, the lower center of which contains a sun-like figure with radiating rays; may consist of a wood panel or a glazed sash.

back to top


Tear Drop
A term given to mouldings with a gradual curved profile.

A projection tongue-like part of a wood member to be inserted into a slot (mortise) of another member to form a "mortise and tenon joint."

Moulding pre-finished by staining and top-coating.

Tongue and Groove Joint
A joint formed by the insertion of the tongue of one wood member into the groove of the other; modifications include tongue and groove rabbet joint, dado tongue and rabbet, tongued shoulder joint, dado and rabbet joint, dado and rabbet joint, dado and lip joint.

Top Rail
The top rail of a sash, door, blind or other similar panel assembly.

A large bead; opposite of scotia; rope like moulding.

A small opening above a door or window separated by a horizontal member that usually contains a sash or a louver panel hinged to the transom bar. Transoms, or fan lights, were first used in the 18th century on exterior doors. They increased the amount of light let into the front hall, and because of them, the size of the front door could be reduced. They probably encouraged the Victorian use of stained glass for front doors.

Millwork, primarily mouldings and/or trim to finish-off (trim around) windows and door openings, fire-places, walls and other members.

Millwork, primarily mouldings and/or trim to finish-off (trim around) windows and door openings, fire-places, walls and other members.

Odd lengths developed in the manufacture of cut-to-length finger jointed mouldings.

Trimming Out
Installing "trim"; sometimes refers to interior finish.

back to top



A thin sheet or layer of wood, usually rotary-cut, sliced or sawn from a log, bolt or flitch.

Veneered Construction
A stile or rail consisting of a core, two edge strips and two face veneers bonded together under pressure with adhesives.

Vinyl Wrapped Moulding
A wood moulding pre-finished by wrapping with vinyl film, either in wood grains and colors or solid un-grained color.

back to top


A lower interior wall surface (usually 3 to 4 feet above the floor) that contrasts with the wall surface above it; an interior wall composed of two different interior wall surfaces one above the other.

Wainscot/ Plycap Moulding
Covers and beautifies plywood's/ wainscot's upper edge or rough sandwich edge in installation where it is exposed to view.

Water-Repellant Preservatives
A formulation of chemical which retards the absorption of liquid water and which inhibits decay and stain in wood. It is commonly used on wood window components.

Bark or lack of wood from any cause, except eased edges, on the edge or corner of a piece of lumber.

Any deviation from a true or plane surface, including bow, crook, cup and twist and any combination thereof. Warp restrictions are based on the average form of warp as it occurs normally, and any variation from this average form, such as short kinks, shall be appraised according to its equivalent effect. Pieces containing two or more forms shall be appraised according to the combined effect in determining the amount permissible. Warp may be classified as very light, light, medium, and heavy.

Variously shaped metal, vinyl, plastic or molded fiber strips that fit tightly against the sash or door frame parts to prevent air infiltration through cracks. Cold air entering the house in winter can account for up to 35% of the heating load. Weatherstripping can reduce the load to 20%.

Window Casing
May be interior or exterior; an exterior window casing is most commonly installed on window frames for wood facing wood frame exterior walls; along with the blind stop, it forms the rabbet for the storm sash or screen.

Window Frame
A group of wood parts machined and assembled to form an enclosure and support for a window or sash.

Window Jamb
The part of the window frame that surrounds and contacts the window or sash that the frame is intended to support.

Window Unit
A combination of the frame, window, weatherstripping, sash activation device and, at the option of the manufacturer, screens and/or storm sash assembled as a complete and properly operating unit.

Wood Composite
A wood-based compound utilizing wood fibers, reconstituted wood or other wood derivative.

back to top




back to top

Information for glossary found at http://www.customillwork.com/Custom_Millwork-glossary.htm -- © 2004 Custom Millwork - Chicago,IL